Cytochrome P-450-Mediated Metabolism of the Individual Enantiomers of the Antidepressant Agent Reboxetine in Human Liver Microsomes
Wienkers LC, Allievi C, Hauer MJ, Wynalda MA
Department of Drug Metabolism,
Pharmacia & Upjohn,
Drug Metab Dispos 1999 Nov 1; 27(11):1334-1340


In vitro studies were conducted to identify the hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes responsible for the oxidative metabolism of the individual enantiomers of reboxetine. In human liver microsomes, each reboxetine enantiomer was metabolized to one primary metabolite, O-desethylreboxetine, and three minor metabolites, two arising via oxidation of the ethoxy aromatic ring and a third yet unidentified metabolite. Over a concentration range of 2 to 200 muM, the rate O-desethylreboxetine formation for either enantiomer conformed to monophasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Evidence for a principal role of CYP3A in the formation of O-desethylreboxetine for (S,S)-reboxetine and (R,R)-reboxetine was based on the results from the following studies: 1) inhibition of CYP3A activity by ketoconazole markedly decreased the formation of O-desethylreboxetine, whereas inhibitors selective for other CYP enzymes did not inhibit reboxetine metabolism, 2) formation of O-desethylreboxetine correlated (r(2) = 0.99; p <.001) with CYP3A-selective testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity across a population of human livers (n = 14). Consistent with inhibition and correlation data, O-desethylreboxetine formation was only detectable in incubations using microsomes prepared from a Baculovirus-insect cell line expressing CYP3A4. Furthermore, the apparent K(M) for the O-desethylation of reboxetine in cDNA CYP3A4 microsomes was similar to the affinity constants determined in human liver microsomes. In addition, (S,S)-reboxetine and (R,R)-reboxetine were found to be competitive inhibitors of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (K(i) = 2.5 and 11 muM, respectively). Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that the metabolism of both reboxetine enantiomers in humans is principally mediated via CYP3A.

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